We present morphological properties of dusty star-forming galaxies at z = 1-3 determined with the high-resolution (FWHM~0.′′19) ALMA 1-mm band maps of our ASAGAO survey covering a 26-arcmin2 area in GOODS-S and the ALMA archive. The present sample consists of 45 ALMA sources with a wide rest-frame far-infrared (FIR) luminosity L_FIR range of 10^11-13 L⊙. To obtain an average rest-frame FIR profile, we perform individual measurements and careful stacking of the ALMA sources using the uv-visibility method that includes positional-uncertainty and smoothing-effect evaluations through Monte-Carlo simulations. We find that the dusty star-forming galaxies have the average FIR-wavelength Sersic index and effective radius of n_FIR = 1.2+/-0.2 and Re_FIR =1.0-1.3 kpc, respectively, additionally with a point source at the center, indicative of the existence of AGN. The average FIR profile agrees with a morphology of an exponential-disk clearly distinguished from a spheroidal profile (Sersic index of 4), and supports a positive correlation of the FIR size-luminosity relation. We also examine the rest-frame optical Sersic index n_opt and effective radius Re_opt with the deep HST images. Interestingly, we obtain n_opt = 0.9+/-0.3 (~ n_FIR) and Re_opt = 3.2+/-0.6 kpc (> Re_FIR), suggesting that the dusty disk-like structure is embedded within a larger stellar disk. The rest-frame UV and FIR data of HST and ALMA provide us a radial surface density prole of the total star-formation rate (SFR), where the FIR SFR dominates over the UV SFR at the center. Under the simple assumption of a constant SFR, a compact stellar distribution found in z~1-2 compact quiescent galaxies (cQGs) is well reproduced, while a spheroidal stellar morphology of cQGs (n_opt = 4) cannot, suggestive of other important mechanism(s) such as dynamical dissipation.